Concept Introduction


Imagine a development environment where all libraries you need are there. You can re-use libraries to develop your testcases, business requirement, re-use all libraries which have been developped in previous testcase by anybody else. This mean, the Bgp team re-use the OSPF team libraries, routing re-using platform, IOSXR re-using NXOS when needed. Each have great log message in the case they fail, or pass. You could 100% focus on what you want to do, and not focus on how to do it.

If we had this, imagine what our testcases would look like.

if dev.api.verify_interface_shut(interface='Ethernet2/3'):
    self.failed('Interface is not shut')

It makes the script code very easy and quick to write. It also makes the code extremely readable by your teammate and other people that might inherits this script in the future.

If a library does not exists yet, add it and then continue with your automation. Each library follows good developing practice:

  • One common library which is shared to all

  • Re-usable library

    • Parsers

    • Apis

    • Connections

    • Testcases

  • No code duplication

  • Debuggable

  • Good comments

This is one of the goal of having good practice; Creating a development environment that scales, simplify the work for all, and speed up development. As time pass, a larger and a better libraries exists for all to use.

For this to exists, we need guidelines and best practice.


Originating as Cisco engineering document, EDCS-1529178, this documentation expands on the best practices of writing pyATS test cases and libraries. It was created with a few purposes in mind:

  • To enforce device agnostic, modular automation

  • To help design better automation that is scalable and reliable

  • To establish basic principles around what is and is not acceptable in generic test automation life cycle – test automation is software as well.

  • To be used as a tool for someone looking to review someone else’s code.

  • Enable standard/consistency in automation for ease of port, inheritance & maintenance

This document is a list of do’s and do-not’s for pyATS-based automation, and is written like a set of rules/regulations.

  • The words “must” & “shall” means that the guideline is a non-optional requirement.

  • The word “should” means that the guideline is strongly suggested, but other acceptable options may also be used (if applicable).

It is recommended that the content of this document be used during code reviews, and code design & planning.

This document is intended for individual & engineers using and developing automated test scripts and their supporting libraries, modules and packages under the pyATS ecosystem.


Test automation is no different than any other software development: using software to test software. It requires clear understanding of overall requirements, proper planning, solid design, and most importantly, disciplined programming. This document offers an organized collection of ideas and practices intended to guide pyATS users throughout this development process.

Automation must be cost-effective in the long-term. We should keep this in mind while planning, designing, and developing test automation. The following is a set of key principles that all test automation development shall follow.

We tried to add as much example as possible to make the content less dry, and easier to follow.

Agnostic & Reusable

The test code must remain generic enough such that the support of new OS/Platform/Versions shall only entail writing/enhancing libraries for handling inputs/outputs/timings differences. All platform, OS and version specific code must be abstracted into libraries. This promotes code reusability whilst reducing overall code complexity.

Consider leveraging the genie.abstract package and contributing your agnostic packages and libraries to genie.libs, benefiting the user community. Follow guidelines outlined in the repository README files and development guides.

  # Wrong
  if '17.2' in show_version:
  elif '17.3' in show_version:
      do something()
  elif '17.5' in show_version:
  # Correct
  # Because of abstraction, no need to do the ifs
  # and it will find the right library for this os, platform, image, ...
  • As new version of the OS appear, we should not be modifying all our scripts, but only the library that drives the script.

Effective & Efficient

The effectiveness of a test suite is measured as a function of its execution time, resource requirements, and the number of unique problems/bugs/issues it catches. As test suites are expected to long-lived, they must be engineered to be both time-efficient and cost-effective whilst providing maximum coverage and attempting to catch all potential bugs/issues:

  • Focus on the feature you are testing and avoid repeating the same test trail.

  • Add new tests and/or enhance existing tests as the feature gets more stable.

  • Do things asynchronously when applicable to reduce execution time.

  • Refactor test suites often in order to make them more efficient whilst maintaining the same test coverage.

  • When customers report problems, review your tests and see if you can improve them in order to catch similar problems.

  • Lower the priority (tier) of tests when they lose their value, but do not delete them – test coverage shall only increase, not decrease.

  • Use your knowledge of the source code and architecture and constantly seek to improve the effectiveness of your test suites.

In summary

  • Effectiveness of a test script * execution time * resource requirements * number of unique problems/bugs/issues it catches

  • Time limit per test suite * Reserve devices * Clean * Configure

  • Use Asynchronous as much as possible

  • Constant review of coverage

  • Prioritize testcases

Reliable & Repeatable

Tests that reports pass under failure conditions is worse than not having such tests. Automation is software, and is thus also prone to bugs. In order to avoid bugs slipping through, code logic shall be explicit and strict (eg, if statements covering all possible scenarios), flexible (eg, handles assorted environments & timing conditions), and code changes should always be reviewed by colleagues and/or subject matter experts.

In summary

  • Test automation must always give the same result with the starting point

  • Inconsistent results make you question everything

    • Is it the device?

    • Is it the script ?

    • Configuration ?

    • Let’s rerun to try to find the issue - Waste of time

  • Pass under Failure condition is worse than having no test

Sustainable & Responsible

Over the course of its life, a test suite goes through many revisions and its ownership possibly transitioned through multiple groups. These revisions may be enhancements (increasing coverage/platform support), bug fixes (correcting errors in the code logic), or amendments (conforming to changes in the product under test). As such, all test automation suites shall be designed to be maintainable: minimizing the amount of effort associated with revisions & sustainment.

As an example, test suites typically rely heavily on device control I/O (e.g. CLI). As these are prone to change during a product’s life cycle, test suites shall be designed in such a way that these revisions can be reflected in the test code through minimal changes: e.g., by following a modular design using objects and classes, reusing and extending existing libraries whenever possible.

Keep test suites easy to read, comprehend & use by following consistent style and through thorough documentation. Describe what is being accomplished, comment on complex code and logic, and detail the different use-cases of your creations and how to debug them in case of failures. Keep your comments to the point and accurate in the explanation.

In summary

  • Scripts get modified

    • Increasing Coverage

    • Platform Support

    • Bug Fix

  • Ownership will change over the course of script life

  • The goal should be to Minimize effort each time it has to be modified

  • Easy to read

  • Consistent style across script, library

  • Documentation * Header * Comments

  • Maintain comments

  • Be explicit with your errors