Let’s start with some short questions and answers:

What are the most common test scenarios in test automation?

Triggers and verifications are the most common test scenarios in test automation.

  • Triggers: Triggers support multiple actions. HA, restart, reload, config/unconfig, enable/disable, connect/disconnect and clear are some of the most common trigger.

  • Verifications: Verifications check whether the software or the feature is performing as expected.

What types of testing levels exist?

Unit Test, Sanity (smoke, commit, nightly), Integration, Component/Regression, System/Solution are some examples of the different testing levels that exist. The depth of coverage, the topology, runtime, and the scale of the requirements all vary, depending on the testing level.

How can Genie help teams with test automation ?

Unlike traditional test automation, which are written very monolithically, Genie uses microservice design and development principles. This software is ideal for cross OS/Platform teams. It enables them to develop in parallel, conduct tests, and scale their respective feature/components independently.

Genie eliminates infrastructure development and focuses on developing modular and independent test and libraries. It decouples the tests from topology/configuration to address a large array of user requirements in UT/Sanity/Regression/Solution and AS.

Genie Conf, Genie Ops, and Genie SDK encourage teams to write loosely coupled tests that can be easily maintained, understood, and reused.

Genie SDK provides the baseclass for most common test scenarios.

Genie Harness mixes various tests and runs them under various test conditions, thereby providing flexibility to scale coverage, configuration, and runtime based on the requirements of the particular testing level.


Genie uses pyATS abstraction to support various abstraction requirement at feature levels, OS/Platform/Release/CLI/YANG/REST/ , etc.. Users are encouraged to understand and use abstraction in their libraries and scripts to reduce conditional if statements based on hardcode variables.


The following are Genie’s core elements for the conf objects:

  • Feature

  • Testbed

  • Device

  • Interface

  • Link

Feature is the baseclass for the specific configuration to be applied to the topology. Testbed, Device, Interface, and Link are the baseclasses that define the topology.

  • Feature: This baseclass represents the feature to be configured on the device/interface/link.


For more details refer to Feature object.

  • Testbed: This baseclass defines the base topology. It contains Device and Link objects. The testbed also provides APIs/methods to i) find particular objects with matching criteria; and ii) add or remove a Device and/or Link. When a Testbed object is configured, everything contained in the object will be configured (the Device and Link objects).


For more details refer to Testbed object.

  • Device: This baseclass provides APIs to find: i) the Interface/Features matching criteria; and ii) add/remove Interface/Feature.


For more details refer to Device object.

  • Interface: This baseclass represents an interface on a given Device.


For more details refer to Interface object

  • Link: This baseclass represents one-to-many connections to an Interface. Link object provides APIs to add, remove, or find an Interface.


For more details refer to Link object.

The diagram below depicts the object relationship. Refer to the UML for more information.

New feature

The orange lines represent which object contains what other objects. The green dashed lines shows which object may access another object, without containing it.


The Genie ops object takes a snapshot of a Feature on a Device. The snapshot captures operation data about the Feature by issuing multiple commands to the Device in parallel. Various snapshot can be taken at various stages of execution and used to compare/verify the feature’s stability.

Genie uses pyATS connection pool for parallel execution of the commands. It also uses metaparser to standardize the returned parser structure independently of the backend parser, such as parsergen, textfsm, etc, and interface management used, such as (CLI/YANG/REST). Metaparser also provides a fall-back (CLI, XML, REST combination), which can be used in cases where not all structure attributes are yet available.


Refer to pyATS connection pool for details on parallel connection.


Refer to metaparser for details on creating a generic parser structure.


Refer to parsergen for details on CLI Auto-Parser.

The diagram below illustrates a Genie Ops snapshot throughout execution and comparison operation.

New feature

Example workflow

SDK - Triggers & Verifications

Genie SDK provides the baseclass for most common test scenarios and generic libraries.

Trigger is a pyATS testcase class capable of supporting multiple test sections. Trigger class, via inheritance, can customize test sections when, and if needed, while keeping the main flow of the trigger intact.

Trigger SDKs are categorized into groups. The baseclass trigger in each group provides the structure and the flow. This facilitates variation of the trigger to be written without having to make significant changes to the code (Object oriented programming concepts 101! ). For example, all the Clear triggers such as ClearRoutes, ClearBgpNeighbor are inherited from Clear base trigger).***


Triggers can be found under: genie_libs/sdk/triggers/structure/.

A verification takes a snapshot of a feature’s data structure. Each time this verification is rerun, the original snapshot is compared with the current snapshot. As the verification progresses, we can determine whether the state of the device has changed and whether it is performing as expected.

A verification can either be a pyATS test case or a test section of a Trigger. When it is its own testcase, then we call it global verification. When it is part of a trigger, we call it local verification. local verification’s snapshots are compared with the trigger and not with the global verifications.

A verification can either be an Ops object, a parser object, or a callable which returns a dictionary.


Genie Harness amalgamates all Genie components to automatically generate a pyATS testscript based on datafiles. The flow of execution and the test content are derived from the datafiles. The testcase and test content are identified by select triggers and verifications in the Genie SDK library.

New feature

The picture below shows a typical flow of Genie Harness with details about each section.

New feature

Genie Harness uses pyATS abstraction to dynamically load and associate Trigger and Verification based on the devices’ information.

Each trigger can have a set of pre and post-processor to extend the test or validation, which can be added at runtime via the datafiles. This adds functionality to the triggers without having to actually modify the triggers’ code.

Genie Harness is highly customizable via the datafiles. Below are some of the features controlled via the datafiles:

  • Execute a trigger or verification on different UUT. If many UUTs are provided, many new testcases will be created.

  • Each trigger and verification can be repeated as many times as desired. This is very useful for stress tests.

  • Each trigger and verification can be organized by execution groups.

  • Multiple configuration files can be applied on all devices via tftp. If a specific error messages is seen, the run will be terminated.

Another key feature of Genie Harness is it’s Profile The System feature, refered as: PTS. PTS allows Genie Harness to learn the operational information/state of the features and to create a snapshot. This snapshot can then be used in different stages of the run to validate the state of the feature/system is as expected.

The PTS feature can as well be used to validate the actual applied configuration right at the start. A golden snapshot can be created which details the expected configuration the system should be running with. The golden snapshot can then be compared to the initial snapshot taken in the common_setup of the runs, any differences can then be tagged and action taken (ignore, warning, abort of the run).